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Metaverse Weekly: Vulnerabilities and bottlenecks of centralized ISPs for Metaverse expansion – IndiaBlogger.in

Billions of people around the world use the Internet every day Internet Service Provider (ISP), These ISPs have formed partnerships and developed the infrastructure for access to the Internet around the world.

To access the Internet, no matter what device a person has, it needs a connection through an ISP. The ISP provides the required connectivity and bandwidth in which to interact with the Internet. Without it, even a fully decentralized Web3 Internet would be inaccessible.

How do ISPs work?

At a fundamental level, ISPs act as major data movers by providing access through various connections (for example DSL or dial-up) that come with different speeds, services and access.

Some prominent examples of ISPs include:

  • AT&T
  • Comcast
  • Verizon
  • cox
  • netzero

All of these providers have one particularly key feature in common – they are large-scale, centralized entities that have considerable power over the Internet. This directly coincides with the concentration of cellular access among the giants AT&T, Verizon and TMobile.

it is because of heavy barrier to entry Which has been created because of the necessary infrastructure required to make it a competitor. Many ISPs have solid contracts with cities to build infrastructure such as both major data centers (usually operated by tech giants like Google or Amazon) and fiber optic cable lines.

In fact, there are thousands and thousands of miles of fiber optic cables that transfer data around the world on the east coast of the United States alone. This centralized infrastructure also has secondary risks such as overload due to damaged infrastructure resulting in the resumption of huge amounts of internet and telecommunications traffic.

The huge increase in the demand and technological development of the Internet

there are Two different laws famous in technological development of computing and the Internet. The first of these is Moore’s Law which states that computing power grows at an annual rate of 60% or 100x compounding in just ten years.

The flip side of this coin is Nielsen’s law which states that internet bandwidth almost doubles every year, with a 57x increase in growth over ten years. However, bandwidth grows at a much slower rate overall.

For example, someone who pays more for a bandwidth upgrade will only see improvement up to a certain point. Bandwidth not only depends on high-level access but is limited by the speed of centralized ISPs in upgrading equipment and necessary infrastructure. Upgrading existing infrastructure to increase bandwidth speeds by 50% can cost billions of dollars and take a long time to implement.

Additionally, as technology improves, there is more demand for high-end Internet access, including an increase in things like streaming. The COVID-19 pandemic coincided with an increase in internet demand by around 70%. Per AT&T LabsInternet traffic is doubling almost every year. When considering building a metaverse, this demand could skyrocket and lead to the expansion of ISP infrastructure and capabilities for the average user.

Development of Decentralized ISPs

For the metaverse to truly function and remain as decentralized as possible, it must have unrestricted access. This raises the question of how viable decentralized ISPs can really be.

Distributed Internet access has been sought and researched for some time now. This has led to the development of various concepts, two of which are highlighted below:

Microgrids for Distributed Internet Data Centers

Part of the issue of systemic centralization falls directly on the data centers. With centralized ISPs forming strategic partnerships with centralized data storage providers, a decentralized ISP would still have to rely on those same data centers and thus only partially solve the problem.

Diagram of the Microgrid – Dr. Leonard W. White / NC State University

There have been many proposals for planning and Develop a microgrid to power distributed internet data centers, A microgrid is a concept of distributing the power grid itself. It operates as a local energy grid that can function parallel to or autonomously from the main power grid. These microgrids will have the durability and capability to host localized data centers, ensuring that there is less traffic pressure on the local system due to smaller sample sizes.

mesh network

Another working concept is that mesh network – A way to more efficiently distribute WiFi connectivity. Mesh networks have models that work from an individual home to an entire city. The network is formed through distributed nodes that are interoperable, meaning they can communicate with each other to share a wireless connection. It covers large areas with great coverage.

It is actually the wireless delivery of internet connectivity. When considering this concept for smart cities, it would drastically cut down on the necessary infrastructure needed to distribute internet access in a city among thousands of residents. Lower infrastructure requirements mean all of the following:

  • low upgrade cost
  • more distributed reach
  • Small barrier to entry of new participants
  • Less systemic exposure due to environmental factors

Wireless mesh networks are projected to have a . will have a steady growth based on research report Released in February 2022.

blockchain-based solution

There are a few different cryptocurrency-powered projects working on the idea of ​​decentralized ISPs. With a bootstrapped crypto-powered funding round, it can help fund the project through community building and will also help distribute ownership across ISPs.

one such example is Nexus (NXS), The Nexus Protocol aims to provide decentralized routing services for users to bypass traditional ISPs and is “powered by one”. Security-focused operating system (LX-OS)using the immutability of the Nexus to verify its internal states, making it resistant to most known operating system level exploits”. To achieve this, the Nexus Protocol aims to be built from a combination of tokenized microsatellites and ground stations. A strong network has to be established in which the said satellites can be interacted with. Elon Musk’s Starlink (but decentralized).

The micro-satellites are to be launched into low earth orbit and run the Nexus Protocol operating system. Ground stations are set up via phased array antennas, which are “and are electrically powered”. Capable of realizing high mileage and maneuverability“. These antennas can be installed on top of buildings or vehicles, and “connect to transceivers on the 5.8 GHz ISM (industrial, scientific, medical) band, commonly used in Wi-Fi routers”, nexus protocol website,

The successful launch and implementation of such technology, if it works appropriately, would adopt Starlink’s concept and distribute its ownership throughout Web3. Other examples of decentralized ISP development include Blockstream (Bitcoin) And althea,


Access to the Internet will continue to be a major challenge for the development of a global, decentralized metaverse and Web3 in general. Censorship through ISPs clearly has some workarounds (the explosion in popularity of VPNs, for example), but a large percentage of the global population lives with at least some restrictions on Internet access.

Decentralized Internet access puts the power of the Internet entirely in the hands of the users. While development is slow for decentralized ISP technology, concepts and ideas are emerging that potentially have ample examples of how to do it. Should Web3 and the metaverse ever reach their full adoption and development potential, unrestricted access is critical for both.

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